Canada, like the United States, is a country of immigrants. But if the States seek to close the borders from visitors, Canada, on the contrary, is counting on new settlers as an important economic resource.
Hence the country’s migration guidelines: they are waiting there first of all for those who will work and develop the Canadian economy. That is, owners of popular specialties (it can be a doctor, a lumberjack, and a nurse), who know English or French (and ideally both), without serious illnesses and at working age.
The migration authorities treat well those who visit the country as a tourist or come to visit. And of course, the country is waiting for entrepreneurs, but they will need not just to invest money, but to create and maintain a working business.
Features of immigration to Canada
Canada is focused on the influence of new labor. Those who have a good potential in the labor market are quickly granted permanent residence, and after 3 years of continuous residence in this status, they have the right to citizenship.
At the same time, the country also issues non-immigrant visas for seasonal workers, students, tourists, those visiting relatives, and others. However, even a short visit to Canada can be a plus for those who subsequently decide to immigrate.
There are several dozen economic immigration programs in the country. On the one hand, the most demanded specializations are determined at the federal level (now these are the creators of start-ups, nannies and nurses, agricultural workers).
On the other hand, each province finds out its specific needs in the labor force (somewhere it needs fishermen, and somewhere it needs farmers or snowmobile drivers), plans and selects those categories of workers that are needed for its sustainable development.
Most of the programs are based on the Express Entry system – a single database in which everyone who wants to leave for Canada can register. Participants are awarded a certain number of points – depending on their usefulness for the Canadian labor market. For each program, candidates are regularly selected who have a suitable specialization and the highest rating – they are invited to apply for moving to Canada
It is important to note that the largest Canadian province – Quebec – has its own immigration rules and separate programs.
Another specific feature of immigrating to Canada is the requirement for a medical examination for most categories. Accordingly, the reason for refusal may be dangerous infectious diseases or the need for expensive medical care.
Quotas for immigrants
Since visitors are the most important resource for the country’s economy, the authorities are trying to plan it. Now the country is oriented towards receiving more than 300,000 migrants annually. And recently, the plan has been increasing by 10,000 every year. So, in 2020, 340,000 people are expected to arrive, in 2021 – 350,000, and in 2022 – already 360,000 people.
More than half of them are “economic class”, that is, employees, businessmen, self-employed. The general planned indicators for the reception of economic migrants are further divided into narrower areas: by individual provinces, professions or areas of activity. In other categories, relatives account for just over a quarter of new Canadians. The remaining 16% are refugees and other humanitarian migrants.
Popular Ways to Move to Canada
Benefits of moving to Canada
Moving to Canada is attractive for most Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians. The country has a high standard of living, developed medicine, a stable economic and political situation. Residents of Canada have good earning opportunities, and you can move with the whole family.
A Canadian passport opens the door to most countries of the world, and already in the status of a permanent resident, you can expand the geography of travel. Since there are many migrants in the country, local residents are calm about visitors, they are not embarrassed by people who speak other languages or representatives of a different culture.
Cons of immigration
There are not so many negative points, but still, they are. Canada is a country of vast expansions, with a significant part of it located near the Arctic Circle. Residents of European cities may be unaccustomed to small towns and cold climates.
Another unpleasant moment is the progressive tax rate. High-income income tax can be more than 30% of the amount, but those who receive no more than 48 thousand Canadian dollars a year ($ 36 thousand) pay only 15%.
Immigration lawyers answer your questions
Ways of immigration through business and investment
In Canada, immigration programs for passive investors (who simply invest in the economy without developing a company) operated and were very popular, but they are now suspended.
The country relies on the active participation of the entrepreneur in the work of his business. All Canadian provinces have local immigration programs for businessmen, but their prerequisite is a really operating business under the leadership of the applicant.
Federal program for those who launch innovative businesses in the country. Theoretically, it is possible to move to Canada without any investment at all, but in fact, the launch of the company will require costs in any case. The most important condition is that it must be a unique project that will receive support from venture funds operating in Canada, business angels or business incubators.
Each province has its own business immigration programs, but their conditions are generally similar: the future business must be located in the province, and its owner must also settle there – a candidate for permanent residence.
The minimum amount of investment, the size of the personal capital of the investor and his family, as well as the number of jobs created are negotiated. Buying a business is possible. Some areas of activity are excluded from the program (for example, pawnshops, scrap metal processing, etc.), others may require licensing. Those industries that are a priority for a given province, on the contrary, may give an advantage in obtaining permanent residence.
First of all, this is the business plan of the future company. In addition, it will be necessary to confirm education and work experience, provide information about personal capital and investments made.
The reason for the refusal to obtain permanent residence may be the failure to meet the indicators of the business plan or other conditions of the program (in particular, residence in the province).
Ways to immigrate for work
Main route of migration to Canada. In order to use it, you must first of all have a specialty (say, a doctor or an engineer is fine, but an electrician or a cook is also very good), and also know one of the official languages of the country – English or French.
You can directly look for a job in Canada – study vacancies, send resumes, communicate with employers. In this case, you will need to wait for an invitation to work and, on its basis, apply for a work visa. However, at the same time, you will get a job, but not the right to permanent residence – you will need to seek it separately.
Therefore, another way is often preferred for immigration – through numerous operating programs in the country. Most of them are based on the Express Entry system, which evaluates the overall usefulness of a foreigner to the Canadian labor market. At the same time, each province separately calculates its need for certain specialists and launches its own “provincial” selections.
There are also general programs that operate throughout the country or several regions – with their help, the shortage of workers in certain specialties or in certain parts of Canada is closed.
As a rule, a person moving for work will be required to present a diploma, confirm work experience, and show the results of language tests. An invitation from the employer and the LMIA may also be required – this document, received by the employer, confirms that the foreign worker will not worsen the situation on the local labor market.
Reasons for rejection
Often a preliminary decision on the admission of a candidate is made only on the basis of his application. If he then fails to confirm the declared information with documents or misses the deadlines, then he may well be refused.
The system of mass selection of candidates wishing to move to Canada for permanent residence for work. The principle of its operation is as follows: the applicant registers in the online database and enters into it all the essential information about himself. These include: profession, work experience, education, age, marital status, experience of studying / working in Canada, the presence of relatives in the country, knowledge of English and / or French, the presence of a job offer, and others.
For each item, the applicant receives a certain number of points. In total, there can be a maximum of 1200, the passing score is approximately at the level of 470. A candidate can increase his score in several ways, for example, by improving his knowledge of languages or by gaining additional skills. However, the most significant increase comes from an invitation to work or participate in provincial programs.
The program has three streams:
Federal Skilled Worker is the main immigrant program designed for workers in demanded specialties. Requires at least 1 year of professional experience within the last 10 years or an invitation from a local employer, as well as a fairly high level of language proficiency.
Federal Skilled Trades Program – for specialists in a number of professions included in the list . Minimum work experience must be 2 years within the last 5, language requirements are somewhat lower, but a job offer is required.
Canadian Experience Class – for professionals who have worked in Canada for at least 1 year over the past three years.
Pilot program extended until the end of 2021. On it you can move to the Canadian provinces, located on the Atlantic coast. These are Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
An important condition: to participate, a foreigner needs an invitation from an employer accredited in the program. Among the advantages – accelerated obtaining of permanent residence, an open work permit for a spouse, special conditions for graduates of Canadian universities.
At the federal level, those who work in the field of culture or sports fall into this program. Of particular interest is to specialists who participated in world-class events. Candidates are selected according to a point system, taking into account experience, education, knowledge of languages and other parameters.
Babysitters and nurses
Those who have received an invitation from a Canadian employer, or who already have relevant work experience in Canada, can participate in this program. Mandatory requirements are experience as a nanny for a child or a nurse, or a skill confirmed by a diploma. In addition, an average level of language proficiency and at least 1 year of post-secondary education (university or college) are required.
If the verified work experience in the last 3 years is less than 24 months, you will receive an open work permit, which will allow you to change employers, but not profession. Upon reaching the experience of 24 months, you can apply for permanent residence.
Northern and Rural Program
This is a new program aimed at the development of remote areas and small rural areas. The selection of migrants for it is carried out in accordance with the needs of urban and rural communities registered in the program.
agriculture and food industry
A program for workers with qualifications in their respective fields. A prerequisite is to have at least 1 year of permanent work in Canada in this sector. The basis for obtaining permanent residence will be an offer of permanent, non-seasonal work in a profession from the approved list .
Each Canadian province or territory determines its economic immigration needs and selects applicants in several ways. These can be streams for graduates of Canadian universities, for entrepreneurs, for highly qualified specialists, for representatives of a specific field of activity (medicine, IT), etc.
For example, in 2017, the province of British Columbia launched a pilot program to attract IT specialists – BC Tech Pilot . Within its framework, representatives of 29 in-demand technical professions can obtain a work permit under an accelerated procedure, and then become permanent residents of Canada.
At the same time, most of the programs are based on the Express Entry system. A candidate registered in the system can apply for participation in a specific provincial program, and then his working potential will be considered from the point of view of the whole country, but of the locality, which, with a reasonable choice, increases the chances.
The province of Quebec, the largest and one of the most developed, organizes the reception of immigrants separately from the rest of the country. It has its own immigration programs , not related to the Express Entry system, and separate rules for considering applications.
In particular, since this is a French-speaking province, applicants with knowledge of French receive additional benefits. At the same time, there is a separate exam for knowledge of democratic values and the values of Quebec.
Study immigration methods
A great way to gain a foothold in Canada if you have time and money to spare.
It is easy to enter Canadian universities: it is enough to have a high school diploma, pass a language test and have enough money to live.
The country’s universities are highly rated and provide quality education.
You get a profession in accordance with local standards. You do not have to retrain, take additional exams or confirm your diploma to start working.
You can continue to specialize in the same field that you had in your home country, or learn a new profession.
During your student years, you can study the peculiarities of the life of the country in order to choose a suitable place and direction of work for your future life.
It is easy for graduates of Canadian universities to obtain permanent residence in the country.
Your earning opportunities will be limited (on a student visa you can work no more than 20 hours a week), you will need funds to live in Canada and pay for education.
A study visa in itself does not give grounds for obtaining permanent residence, although it greatly facilitates it.
You need to know English or French well for successful studies.
The main point is to choose an educational institution in Canada, pass exams and receive confirmation of enrollment. But on its basis, you will be issued a study visa, with which you can already move to Canada.
Important! A student visa can only be obtained upon admission to accredited educational institutions in Canada.
If the study period does not exceed six months, you can go on a regular tourist visa, but this option has little immigration prospects. It is best to take courses lasting from 2 years, at the end they give the right to a 3-year work visa. During this period, it will be easier for you to find a permanent job in your specialty.
The most important documents will be your diplomas and certificates, tests for knowledge of English or French and an invitation from the university. You will also need to prove that you have sufficient funds to live in Canada while you study.
Reasons for rejection
You may be denied, first of all, if you entered an unaccredited university. Also, a refusal will follow in case of violation of the general rules (incomplete package of documents, inaccurate information, etc.).
Immigration through family reunification
Canada offers a transparent option for transport to the country of the closest relatives: sponsorship. This means that a citizen or permanent resident of a country can apply for permanent residence based on kinship for their spouse or unofficial partner, children, and parents or other relatives. However, at the same time, he assumes the obligation to financially support them.
Adult relatives have the right to work, but if they cannot provide for themselves, the funds for their maintenance will be paid not by the state, but by the host country. The period of mandatory support varies depending on the degree of kinship: spouses must be prepared to support at least 3 years, and parents, grandparents – for 20 years.
In Canada, there is another unusual format for moving the older generation – a supervisa. True, this is an option for temporary stay in the country: it is issued for up to 2 years without the right to work. It works like this: a citizen or permanent resident of Canada can invite their parents, grandparents to the country, and guarantee their financial security. If they still want to work, they will have to change the type of visa.
In this case, confirmation of kinship (birth certificates, marriage certificates, etc.) will become key documents. In addition, the host country will have to provide proof of sufficient financial means and a commitment to support relatives.
Reasons for rejection
They can refuse in case of insufficient funds, previous violations of the visa regime. It should also be borne in mind that from the point of view of the Canadian immigration authorities, reunification with a spouse or minor children is a basic human right, but this principle does not apply to the older generation, so not everyone is given permission, even with impeccable documents.
For example, in 2020, a quota of 10,000 relatives was set , and at the beginning of October, not a single selection had passed yet.
immigration by marriage
Not the most promising option. Of course, if you have a serious relationship with a Canadian citizen, you can try it, but the country’s authorities are very wary of those who want to become Canadian through marriage. They can take a long time with a “fiance visa”, they can already in Canada very meticulously check whether a marriage is valid or fictitious.
In addition, documents are drawn up for about a year, and all this time a person who has arrived in the country cannot work. More often, if possible, a foreigner is advised to marry in his native country, and to move to Canada after family reunification.
In addition to the standard package, and, of course, a marriage certificate, if you are already married, you will most likely have to show evidence of the reality of your relationship. They can be joint photographs, private correspondence, telephone conversations, joint utility bills, evidence of joint trips (tickets, hotel reservations, etc.).
Reasons for rejection
If officials consider your marriage to be fictitious, you will not receive permanent residence.
Immigration for refugees
You can apply for asylum in Canada if you prove that you were in danger of death, torture, ill-treatment or other comparable threat in your home country. In this case, you may not have a complete set of papers, including visas, when crossing the border, but you will need to convincingly justify your right to this status.
The reasons for persecution can be many and not always classifiable. Therefore, an applicant for refugee status will need to submit a request in which he sets out the reasons that prompted him to leave the country.
If possible, and it will be necessary to confirm with documents – the further fate of the appeal depends on this.
Reasons for rejection
An applicant will not receive refugee status in Canada if he already has it in another country, if he has already been denied or granted this status in Canada, if he has a criminal history, or if he arrived in Canada through the border with the United states.
Citizenship of Canada
The holder of permanent residence can apply for Canadian citizenship if he has lived in the country for at least 1095 days (3 calendar years) over the past 5 years. If he has stayed in the country for less than 730 days in 5 years, he may lose his permanent residence status.